Now that we have some faction ideas for the Vallheim, let's hike south, towards the wide-open plains and heliolatric theocracy of Soleh.
I can think of four major factions off the top of my head.
1. The church hierarchy. They are also the government, and collect the taxes, operate the courts, manage the infrastructure and command the armies. This represents pretty much everyone in power.
*Note: make a hierarchy chart of ranks in the church. Also, come up with a name for the god.
2. The merchants. These could be buyers and sellers of stuff from Sunshan, the Vallheim and the Dotze Affariata, or leaders of the guilds of craftsmen. (Surprise, a culture focused on worship of fire as a manifestation of their god is good at forging things), or farm barons who manage large tracts of land, despite not being officials of the church. (Bishops are the equivalent of a feudal lord). They could have tensions with the church and their high taxes.
3. The underclass. Some may be loyal followers of the church, others may have seen their daughters raped and their sons killed by priests. They range from fishermen along the coast to farmers inland, and shifting into herders of sheep, cows and horses further to the west, as the ground becomes arable. Piety also decreases the further West one goes. This group includes the low-ranked priests, who have a....different philosophy than the cardinals and archbishops, the cults and the thieving crews that patrol the large cities.
4. The westerners. The westernmost parts of the country are rolling plains and foothills of the Foresthold Mountains. The people there live a fairly nomadic life, following their herds of sheep and cattle. They have, unlike many westerners, good regard for the church, as church-controlled armies have been protecting them from Goliath raids recently, and their doctors and educators have been increasing public health and the literacy rate. This in turn has led to many elite medium and light cavalry soldiers from the area joining the Solerian armies as scouts and cavalry.